by Sue Dessayer Porter, Bioethics Program Alumna (MSBioethics 2011)
Oregon was the first state to legalize aid-in-dying. Since 1998 it has implemented “Death With Dignity (DWD),” which allows eligible terminally ill people to end their lives peacefully with a legal prescription.
Contrary to fears asserted by the opposition, there has been neither a slippery slope, nor granny panels, nor hordes of people clamoring to Oregon in order to die. With fifteen years experience, DWD has demonstrated successfully that cautious adherence to the law provides safe choice and dignity at the end-of-life.
But in spite of this flawless record, there is increasing obstruction against choosing this autonomous and personal end-of-life option. The problem? As Catholic hospitals merge with financially imperiled medical centers or acquire independent medical practices, they are instituting religious policies which prohibit doctors from any participation with DWD. This restriction applies to all doctors, not only Catholics. Therefore, a Jewish physician treating a Protestant patient is dictated by Catholic doctrine. – Doctors are not even allowed to have a conversation with their patients about DWD, so the “duty to refer” to another physician is not even a consideration.
An unintended consequence? Section 127.885 (5) (a) of Oregon’s DWD Act allows a health care provider to prohibit another health care provider from participating in DWD (http://public.health.oregon.gov/ProviderPartnerResources/EvaluationResearch/DeathwithDignityAct/Pages/ors.aspx). This was a compromise incorporated into the law in order to appease the opposition and move the law forward. But in retrospect, lawmakers in the early 1990’s could not have predicted the merger activity by Catholic hospitals twenty years into the future. The state of medical economics has changed so dramatically in the last two decades, that private practitioners cannot sustain on their own; for survival, they are bought by medical centers. Therefore, doctors who previously supported patients through DWD can no longer do so. Washington state voted DWD into law in 2008 and is facing the same obstacles.
Catholic health care leaders claim to be in a savior mode, in that if it were not for them, many communities would be bereft of medical care. They state that they are “driven by a mission to serve the underserved” and profess a commitment to help every human being (http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/13/us/hospital-mergers-in-northwest-).” This is a guise of altruism, as patients requiring end-of-life choices are being denied lawful alternatives. This pervasive barrier to aid-in-dying is affecting ever-increasing numbers of qualified terminally ill patients who try to avail themselves of DWD. Because their state voted DWD into law, residents of Oregon and Washington reasonably assume that their doctor-patient relationship entitles them access to aid-in-dying. Although this is a credible expectation, it is proving to be false too frequently.
Doctors are individually protected by conscience clauses to deny services that are in conflict with their personal beliefs. Alternatively, as long as freedom of choice is protected for doctors who do not want to participate in specific procedures, the same principle of choice should be guaranteed for doctors who do choose to offer what they consider responsible, ethical and dutiful medical care. And logically, a patient should be assured their right to self-determination.
Medical beneficence should be defined by the doctor and patient, not dictated by the religious views of a separate entity which controls with economic power.